Cancer Discovery

Duke team finds missing immune cells that could fight lethal brain tumor

Glioblastoma brain tumors can have an unusual effect on the body's immune system, often causing a dramatic drop in the number of circulating T-cells that help drive the body's defenses. Where the T-cells go has been unclear, even as immunotherapies are increasingly employed to stimulate the body's natural ability to fight invasive tumors. Now researchers at Duke Cancer Institute have tracked the missing T-cells in glioblastoma patients. They found them
cancer

Deadly Cancers Show Early, Detectable Differences From Benign Tumors

Do metastatic cancer tumors “break bad” or are they “born bad”? This question is an essential mystery in cancer early detection and treatment. Lacking a clear answer, patients are given the same aggressive therapies when small, abnormal clusters of cells are discovered early, even though they might well be harmless. In a study publishing the week of May 14 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a research team
cancer

Biomarker may help diagnose lung cancer earlier

(UPI) -- High levels of a protein found in the bloodstreams of lung cancer patients may lead to a method of detecting the disease earlier, and possibly preventing deaths from it, according to a new study. Researchers found high levels of cytoskeleton-associated protein 4, or CKAP4, in the blood of cancer patients predicted their disease. The research was published Tuesday in the American Journal of Pathology. Lung cancer is the
Cancer Discovery

Cancer Cells Thrive in Stiff Tissue, According to New Study

Stiffer breast tissue creates an environment more prone to cancer by enabling the disease to interfere with the surrounding healthy cells, according to a recent study published in Biomaterials. Scientists studying tumor growth and metastasis at the University of Notre Dame fabricated a human tissue model to examine how cancer cells interact with connective tissue in the breast. The model allowed the team to control the stiffness of the tissue,
cancer Cancer Discovery

Novel Clinical Tool to Predict Patient Survival Rate and Treatment Outcomes for Early-Stage Lung Cancer

A team of researchers, led by Professor Lim Chwee Teck from the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and NUS PhD candidate Ms Lim Su Bin, has leveraged open source data to develop a personalised risk assessment tool that can potentially predict patient survival rate and treatment outcomes of early-stage lung cancer patients. The tool uses a novel panel of 29 unique extracellular matrix (ECM)
cancer Cancer Discovery

Polymer Nanoparticle Shows Ability to Locate and Treat Breast Tumors

One major problem in treating cancer is identifying the location of small tumors and treating them before they metastasize. In an effort to overcome that problem, researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center have developed a fluorescing nanoparticle capable of finding tumors, lighting up upon arrival and being activated with light to generate heat to destroy the cancer cells. A study in which these nanoparticles – Hybrid Donor-Acceptor Polymer Particles,
Pharmaceutical Business News

Merck KGaA and Pfizer’s Avelumab fails in trial

(Marketwatch) Merck KGaA and Pfizer Inc. said on Thursday that avelumab, a cancer immunotherapy, failed to meet the primary objective of a phase 3 trial in patients with a type of lung cancer. The trial didn't meet the endpoint of improving overall survival in patients whose tumors are PD-L1 positive, the companies said. The Javelin Lung 200 trial compared avelumab to docetaxel, a chemotherapy drug, in patients with advanced non-small-cell
Biotechnology cancer Cell Therapy Clinical Trials Uncategorized

Penn’s Glowing Cancer Tool Illuminates Benign, but Dangerous, Brain Tumors during Pituitary Surgery

Fluorescent, targeted dye illuminates molecular signature of tumor tissue in personalized surgery. An experimental imaging tool that uses a targeted fluorescent dye successfully lit up the benign brain tumors of patients during removal surgery, allowing surgeons to identify tumor tissue, a new study from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania shows. The tumors, known as pituitary adenomas, are the third most common brain tumor,
Cancer Discovery

A blood test can predict early lung cancer prognosis

Cancer cells obtained from a blood test may be able to predict how early-stage lung cancer patients will fare, a team from the University of Michigan has shown. This information could be used to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from additional therapies to head off the spread of the cancer to other areas of the body. With a new single cell analysis service in U-M's Comprehensive Cancer
Biotechnology cancer Clinical Trials Genomes Immunotherapies

Personal neoantigen vaccine prompts strong anti-tumor response in patients, study shows

A personal cancer treatment vaccine that targets distinctive "neoantigens" on tumor cells has been shown to stimulate a potent, safe, and highly specific immune anti-tumor response in melanoma patients, report scientists from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The study, published online by Nature "provides proof-of-principle that a personal vaccine tailored to a patient's tumor can be produced and generates highly specific responses to that
Biotechnology cancer Cell Therapy Clinical Trials

Study Shows How an Opportunistic Microbe Kills Cancer Cells and Identifies Specialized Vesicles Responsible for Cell Reproduction

New study results show for the first time how dying cells ensure that they will be replaced, and suggests an ingenious, related new approach to shrinking cancerous tumors. A research team from Rush University Medical Center will publish a new paper this week in the journal Developmental Cell that describes two groundbreaking discoveries. "I believe this discovery is going to have important ramifications on cancer biology and cancer drug development,
cancer

New cellular target may put the brakes on cancer’s ability to spread

A team led by Johns Hopkins researchers has discovered a biochemical signaling process that causes densely packed cancer cells to break away from a tumor and spread the disease elsewhere in the body. In their study, published online May 26 in Nature Communications, the team also reported that the combined use of two existing drugs disrupts this process and appears to significantly slow cancer's tendency to travel, a behavior called
cancer Clinical Trials

First in Human’ Trial Defines Safe Dosage for Small Molecule Drug ONC201 for Solid Cancer Tumors

Research from Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey examines oral drug that targets cancer cells and spares healthy tissue A ‘first in human’ clinical trial examining the small molecule drug ONC201 in cancer patients with advanced solid tumors shows that this investigational drug is well tolerated at the recommended phase II dose. That’s according to Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey investigators and colleagues whose research also showed early signs
cancer Gene Therapy

Potentially Reversible Changes in Gene Control ‘Prime’ Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Spread

Epigenetic changes, not DNA mutations, drive some metastasis multicenter team of researchers reports that a full genomic analysis of tumor samples from a small number of people who died of pancreatic cancer suggests that chemical changes to DNA that do not affect the DNA sequence itself yet control how it operates confer survival advantages on subsets of pancreatic cancer cells. Those advantages, the researchers say, let such cancer cells thrive
Biotechnology cancer

Study Unmasks the Genetic Complexity of Cancer Cells Within the Same Tumor

Pioneering Research Identifies More Than 2,000 Mutations and Illustrates Treatment Challenges A new study led by Cedars-Sinai investigators dramatically illustrates the complexity of cancer by identifying more than 2,000 genetic mutations in tissue samples of esophageal tumors. The findings reveal that even different areas of individual tumors have various genetic patterns. The study results, published in the journal Nature Genetics, help explain why it is so difficult to battle cancer
Biotechnology cancer Cell Therapy

‘Rewired’ Cells Show Promise for Targeted Cancer Therapy

Human immune cells rationally engineered to sense and respond to tumor signal A major challenge in truly targeted cancer therapy is cancer’s suppression of the immune system. Northwestern University synthetic biologists now have developed a general method for “rewiring” immune cells to flip this action around. “Right now, one of the most promising frontiers in cancer treatment is immunotherapy -- harnessing the immune system to combat a wide range of
Biotechnology

Study Shows Low-Dose Chemotherapy Regimens Could Prevent Tumor Recurrence In Types Of Breast Cancer And Pancreatic Cancer

Conventional, high-dose chemotherapy treatments can cause the fibroblast cells surrounding tumors to secrete proteins that promote the tumors’ recurrence in more aggressive forms, researchers at Taipei Medical University and the National Institute of Cancer Research in Taiwan and University of California, San Francisco, have discovered. Frequent, low-dose chemotherapy regimens avoid this effect and may therefore be more effective at treating certain types of breast and pancreatic cancer, according to the
cancer

Johns Hopkins Scientists Track Metabolic Pathways To Find Drug Combination For Pancreatic Cancer

Cancer researchers have long observed the value of treating patients with combinations of anti-cancer drugs that work better than single drug treatments. Now, in a new study using laboratory-grown cells and mice, Johns Hopkins scientists report that a method they used to track metabolic pathways heavily favored by cancer cells provides scientific evidence for combining anti-cancer drugs, including one in a nanoparticle format developed at Johns Hopkins, that specifically target
cancer Cancer Discovery

Researchers Restore Drug Sensitivity in Breast Cancer Tumors

A team of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine cancer researchers has uncovered one way certain tumors resist vital medication. In the study published in Oncotarget, the researchers studied tumor biopsies collected from breast cancer patients before and after treatment with the go-to breast cancer drug trastuzumab (also known as Herceptin). Some of the tumors were treatable with trastuzumab, and others were not. By comparing genes activated in the
cancer Cancer Discovery

Q&A with Heat Biologics’ Founder and CEO Jeffrey Wolf on T Cell Stimulating Cancer Immunotherapies

Immuno-oncology, a field of fast advancing science that activates a patient’s own immune system against cancer, holds great promise.  A number of companies in the field are developing treatment platforms, many of which are patient-specific (autologous) and therefore costly. Heat Biologics’ ImPACT (Immune Pan-Antigen Cytotoxic Therapy) is fully allogeneic, off-the-shelf and cost-efficient, offering the potential to enhance patients’ natural immune response against certain cancers. ImPACT therapy transforms living allogeneic cells