FDA Approves the Roll-Over Combination Study with Checkpoint Inhibitor Immunotherapies to Allow Continued Access to BriaVax™ in Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer

The FDA has approved the roll-over combination study of the investigational breast cancer vaccine, BriaVax™ with pembrolizumab {Keytruda; manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc. or ipilimumab {Yervoy; manufactured by Bristol-Myers Squibb Company for patients previously treated with BriaVax™ from the ongoing Phase I/IIa Clinical Trial in Advanced Breast Cancer.

BriaVax™ is a whole-cell breast cancer vaccine genetically engineered to release granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a substance that activates the immune system by allowing the body to recognize and eliminate cancerous cells by inducing tumor-directed T cell and potentially antibody responses.

This roll-over combination study allows the patients who did not respond to BriaVax™ (monotherapy) treatment to be treated and continue to receive the potential clinical benefits of the vaccine in combination with either pembrolizumab or ipilimumab. This approach is based on the hypothesis that both pembrolizumab and ipilimumab may improve the anti-tumor activity of vaccine in patients with advanced breast cancer. Safety and efficacy data will be evaluated.

“We are very excited to evaluate the effects of BriaVax™ with other approved anti-tumor immunotherapeutic agents. We expect this study to extend and potentiate the clinical benefits of BriaVax™ in advanced breast cancer patients,” stated Dr. Williams, BriaCell’s President & CEO in a press release. “We look forward to expanding our clinical study and exploring potential immunotherapy partnerships with leading pharmaceutical companies in the future, and we are pleased with the FDA decision,” Dr. Williams added.

The clinical investigators will work closely with Cancer Insight, LLC, BriaCell’s contract research organization, to manage the clinical and regulatory aspects of the clinical trial for the roll-over combination study of BriaVax™ on behalf of BriaCell. More information on the roll-over combination study of BriaVax™ with either ipilimumab or pembrolizumab will be available on ClinicalTrials.gov (Study identifier: BRI-ROL-001).

Manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc., KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab) is a prescription medicine that may treat certain cancers by working with the immune system. It has been approved for the treatment of a number of cancer indications excluding breast cancer.

Manufactured by Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, YERVOY® (ipilimumab) is a prescription medicine used in adults and children 12 years and older to treat melanoma (a kind of skin cancer) that has spread (metastatic) or cannot be removed by surgery (unresectable). It is a monoclonal antibody that works to activate the immune system and enabling them to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

BriaVax™ is a whole-cell breast cancer vaccine genetically engineered to release granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a substance that activates the immune system. Previously, a small Phase I study documented very prompt and near complete regression of metastatic breast cancer deposits in the breast, lung, soft tissue, and even the brain.

The ongoing open-label Phase I/IIa study will evaluate BriaVax™ in up to 40 advanced breast cancer patients. This trial is listed in ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03066947. The trial is being conducted along with the co-development of BriaDx™, our companion diagnostic test. The interim data for the first 10 patients is expected by the first quarter of 2018.

BriaCell is an immuno-oncology focused biotechnology company developing a targeted and safe approach to the management of cancer. BriaCell’s mission is to serve late-stage cancer patients with no available treatment options.

Immunotherapy has come to the forefront of the fight against cancer, harnessing the body’s own immune system in recognizing and selectively destroying the cancer cells while sparing normal ones. Immunotherapy, in addition to generally being more targeted and less toxic than commonly used types of chemotherapy, is also thought to be a strong type of approach aimed at preventing cancer recurrence.

The results of two previous Phase I clinical trials (one with the precursor cell line not genetically engineered to produce GM-CSF and one with BriaVax™) have been encouraging in patients with advanced breast cancer. Most notably, one patient with metastatic breast cancer responded to BriaVax™ with substantial reduction in tumor burden including lung and brain metastases. The company is currently conducting a Phase I/IIa clinical trial for BriaVax™ in patients with advanced breast cancer whose disease has progressed following at least one prior treatment course.

This trial is listed in ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03066947.  The trial is being conducted along with the co-development of BriaDx™, our companion diagnostic test. The interim data for the first 10 patients is expected by the first quarter of 2018.

In a previous Phase I setting, a patient with metastatic breast cancer responded to BriaVax™ with objective reduction in tumor burden. To expand on this finding, after updating the clinical protocol of the original investigational new drug (IND) application, an open-label Phase I/IIa clinical trial enrolling up to 40 late stage breast cancer patients with recurrent and/or metastatic disease has been launched. Patients will be administered BriaVax™ every two weeks for the first month of treatment, then monthly up to one year.

The primary objective of the Phase I/IIa clinical trial is to evaluate the safety of BriaVax™ in study subjects, and the principal secondary objective is an evaluation of the tumor size reduction. Tumor response will be monitored every three months during the study. The trial will also evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

For additional details regarding the clinical trial, please visit:
https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03066947

Researchers quantify breast cancer risk based on rare variants and background risk

Rare variants combined with background genetic risk factors may account for many unexplained cases of familial breast cancer, and knowing the specific genes involved could inform choice of prevention and treatment strategies, according to findings presented in a plenary session at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) 2017 Annual Meeting in Orlando, Fla.

Researchers Na Li, MD, who presented the work; Ian Campbell, PhD, lead investigator; and their colleagues at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne, Australia, focused their study on patients at high risk of breast cancer: those with a personal or family history who were seeking an explanation.

“When you know which gene is conferring the risk of breast cancer, you can provide a more precise estimate of risk, know what to expect and watch out for, and tailor risk management strategies to the patient,” said Dr. Campbell. Unfortunately, in about half of these high-risk patients, no known genetic cause was found, suggesting a more complicated explanation. In such cases, cancer geneticists had long suspected that polygenic risk (risk conferred by a combination of genetic variants) was involved.

Genes do not work on their own, but rather as part of one’s overall genetic context, explained Dr. Li. “That ‘polygenic risk’ background is like a landscape full of hills and valleys, with each risky variant like a house on top of it,” she said. “If you inherit a high-risk variant – a tall house – but live in a valley, your overall risk of breast cancer may end up being average because your genetic landscape pulls it down.”

The concept of background genetic risk is not new, but for many years, scientists did not have the tools to collect and analyze the thousands of genomes needed to quantify it. Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing technology have addressed this challenge. As a result, Dr. Li and colleagues were able to sequence up to 1,400 candidate breast cancer genes in 6,000 familial breast cancer patients and 6,000 cancer-free controls. In this large sample, they searched for potential cancer-associated genes suggested by the literature, collaborators, and their own previous results, and identified at least 46 genes that were at least twice as likely to have mutations among participants with breast cancer than in those without.

They also used the data to calculate a polygenic risk score for each patient, and combined this score with data on their high and moderate-risk variants to estimate each patient’s overall risk of developing breast cancer. In the coming years, the researchers plan to expand the study internationally to further test and refine their findings across populations. They also hope to bring these more precise risk estimates into the clinic, to more accurately reassure women about their personal risk of cancer, or – if risk is high – advise preventive strategies such as screening at a younger age.

According to William V. Williams, MD, FRCP, CEO of BriaCell Therapeutics Corp. news on new variants are essential and extremely useful in tailoring and customizing their BriaVax™ breast vaccine technology with those variants in order to teach the body to recognize and eliminate cancerous cells. Their whole-cell breast cancer vaccine is genetically engineered to release granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a substance that activates the immune system. “Breast cancer is an evolving field, there are different sub types of breast cancer. As we know more about the genetics of breast cancer this will allow us to develop novel therapies to treat those different variants, that is part of what we are doing with our vaccines,” he told Modern Wall Street.