cancer Cancer Discovery

Discovery of Pathway Leading to Growth of Colon Cancer Stem Cells Could Lead to New Possibilities in Colorectal Cancer Treatment

In a discovery that may have significant impact on the future of colon cancer treatment and research, scientists at the Helen F. Graham Cancer & Research Institute’s Center for Translational Cancer Research at Christiana Care Health System have defined a key signaling pathway that regulates colon cancer growth. Wilmington, Delaware, Oct. 11, 2018 – In a discovery that may have significant impact on the future of colon cancer treatment and research, scientists at the Helen F. Graham Cancer & Research
Biotechnology

CRISPR Screen Identifies Gene That Helps Cells Resist West Nile, Zika Viruses

UT Southwestern researchers today report the first use of CRISPR genome-wide screening to identify a gene that helps cells resist flavivirus infection. That nasty class of pathogens includes West Nile virus, dengue fever, Zika virus, and yellow fever. In a study published in Nature Microbiology, the team led by Dr. John Schoggins, Assistant Professor of Microbiology, used the cutting-edge CRISPR technology to identify the IFI6 gene as a potent antiviral gene targeting flaviviruses. The
Neurology Neuroscience

Hypertension Drugs Could Prevent Memory Loss in Lupus Patients, Study Suggests

Researchers from The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research have discovered that the activation of brain cells called microglia likely contributes to the memory loss and other cognitive impairments suffered by many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The study, which will be published September 5 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, shows that ACE inhibitors—a class of drugs commonly used to treat hypertension—can block this process in mice and might therefore
Biotechnology

Researchers Find Potential New Gene Therapy for Blinding Disease

Scientists funded by NIH preserve vision in dogs with a disease similar to retinitis pigmentosa in humans. Scientists funded by the National Eye Institute (NEI) report a novel gene therapy that halts vision loss in a canine model of a blinding condition called autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). The strategy could one day be used to slow or prevent vision loss in people with the disease. NEI is part of
age-related decline Alzheimers and Dementia

Scientists Propose a New Lead for Alzheimer’s Research

A University of Adelaide-led team of scientists has suggested a potential link between iron in our cells and the rare gene mutations that cause Alzheimer’s disease, which could provide new avenues for future research. In a paper published in the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience, the team proposes a new theory for how rare gene mutations cause Alzheimer’s disease. A theory that, if proven, could assist in finding a way to prevent the
cancer Cancer Discovery

Tackling Cancer at Ground Zero with Designer Molecules

A new molecule designed by University of Adelaide researchers shows great promise for future treatment of many cancers. The new molecule successfully targets a protein that plays a major role in the growth of most cancers. This protein target is called proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), otherwise known as the human sliding clamp. “PCNA is required for DNA replication and is therefore essential for rapidly dividing cancer cells,” says project
cancer Cancer Discovery

Researchers Find Prostate Cancer Drug Byproduct Can Fuel Cancer Cells

Newly published findings may lead to more personalized prostate cancer therapies A genetic anomaly in certain men with prostate cancer may impact their response to common drugs used to treat the disease, according to new research at Cleveland Clinic. The findings may provide important information for identifying which patients potentially fare better when treated with an alternate therapy. In a newly published study in Journal of Clinical Investigation, researchers found that abiraterone,
Diabetes

Platypus venom inspires potential new diabetes treatments

The world-first discovery of a key metabolic hormone found in the venom and gut of Australia’s iconic platypus will now be investigated for its potential to treat type 2 diabetes, in new research led by the University of Adelaide. In a collaboration between the University of Adelaide, Flinders University, Monash University, SAHMRI and the Royal Adelaide Hospital, funding from Medvet Science is supporting a study to investigate whether the platypus
cancer Cancer Discovery

Researchers Identify Dozens of New Gene Changes That Point to Elevated Risk of Prostate Cancer in Men of European Descent

 As the result of a six-year long research process, Fredrick R. Schumacher, PhD, a cancer epidemiology researcher at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and an international team of more than 100 colleagues have identified 63 new genetic variations that could indicate higher risk of prostate cancer in men of European descent. The findings, published in a research letter in Nature Genetics, contain significant implications for which men may need
cancer Cancer Discovery

Improving Survival in Pancreatic Cancer with Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

A small study of adults with the most common form of pancreatic cancer adds to evidence that patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations long linked to a high risk of breast cancer have poorer overall survival rates than those without the mutations. The same study also found that those with BRCA1 or BRCA2 had better survival rates with platinum-based chemotherapy, compared with similar patients who received other drugs or
Neurology

Defect in Debilitating Neurodegenerative Disease Reversed in Mouse Nerves

Scientists have developed a new drug compound that shows promise as a future treatment for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, an inherited, often painful neurodegenerative condition that affects nerves in the hands, arms, feet and legs. The researchers used the compound to treat the nerves of mice harboring the genetic defects that cause the disease. The new study, from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, challenges some conventional wisdom regarding how
Parkinson's Pharmaceuticals

Mutation of Worm Gene, Swip-10, Triggers Age-Dependent Death of Dopamine Neurons, Key Feature of Parkinson’s Disease

Dopamine, a signaling chemical in the brain, has the lofty job of controlling emotions, moods, movements as well as sensations of pleasure and pain. Dysfunction of this critical neurotransmitter is the cause of a number of diseases, most notably, Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells and most theories of disease risk involve the selective vulnerability of ageing dopamine neurons to genetic mutations or to
Cardiology Strokes

Largest-Ever Genetic Study of Stroke Provides New Insight Into the Disease

An international research group, including scientists at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, studying 520,000 people from around the world has identified 22 new genetic risk factors for stroke, tripling the number of gene regions known to affect stroke risk. The results show that stroke shares genetic influences with other vascular conditions, especially blood pressure, but also coronary artery disease and others. These results provide new clues on stroke
cancer Cancer Discovery

Gene-Based Test for Urine Detects, Monitors Bladder Cancer

Researchers at The Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed a test for urine, gathered during a routine procedure, to detect DNA mutations identified with urothelial cancers. UroSEEK uses urine samples to seek out mutations in 11 genes or the presence of abnormal numbers of chromosomes that would indicate the presence of DNA associated with bladder cancer or upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC). The researchers said the test, when combined with cytology,
Cancer Discovery

Study Suggests Way to Attack Deadly, Untreatable Nerve Tumors

Photo caption: This microscopic image uses immunostaining to highlight the presence of TAZ/YAP (shown in green) in human malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors that grew from Schwann cells. The job of Schwann cells is to form the protective nerve sheath. The cell nuclei are shown in blue. The image is from a study by scientists at Cincinnati Children’s published by the journal Cancer Cell. Genomic profiling of mostly untreatable and
Alzheimers and Dementia

Researchers Identify Epigenetic Orchestrator of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

Genentech researchers have identified an enzyme that shifts pancreatic cancer cells to a more aggressive, drug-resistant state by epigenetically modifying the cells’ chromatin. The study, which will be published December 11 in the Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that targeting this enzyme could make pancreatic cancer cells more vulnerable to existing therapies that currently have only limited effect against this deadly form of cancer. The vast majority of cancers originate in
cancer Cancer Discovery

Combination Strategy Could Hold Promise for Ovarian Cancer

 Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers demonstrated that mice with ovarian cancer that received drugs to reactivate dormant genes along with other drugs that activate the immune system had a greater reduction of tumor burden and significantly longer survival than those that received any of the drugs alone. The study already spurred a clinical trial in ovarian cancer patients. The investigators, led by graduate student Meredith Stone, Ph.D.; postdoctoral fellow Kate
Biotechnology cancer Gene Therapy Prodrug rare diseases

Deadly Lung Cancers Are Driven by Multiple Genetic Changes

Blood-Based Cancer Tests Reveal Complex Genomic Landscape of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers A new UC San Francisco–led study challenges the dogma in oncology that most cancers are caused by one dominant “driver” mutation that can be treated in isolation with a single targeted drug. Instead, the new research finds one of the world’s most deadly forms of lung cancer is driven by changes in multiple different genes, which appear to
Biotechnology Gene Therapy Pharmaceuticals rare diseases

MDI Biological Laboratory study finds immune system is critical to regeneration

The answer to regenerative medicine's most compelling question -- why some organisms can regenerate major body parts such as hearts and limbs while others, such as humans, cannot -- may lie with the body's innate immune system, according to a new study of heart regeneration in the axolotl, or Mexican salamander, an organism that takes the prize as nature's champion of regeneration. The study, which was conducted by James Godwin,
Biotechnology cancer Cell Therapy Gene Therapy Immunotherapies

Immunotherapy treatment option for selected breast cancer patients, genetic study suggests

Immunotherapy drugs could help some breast cancer patients based on the genetic changes in their tumours, researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators find. Published today (13 September) in Cancer Research, scientists identify particular genetic changes in a DNA repair mechanism in breast cancer. The results open up the possibility to another therapy option for around 1,000 breast cancer patients in the UK, who could benefit from