cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

Johns Hopkins Researchers Advance Role of Circulating Tumor DNA to Detect Early Melanoma Growth, Uncover Treatment Options

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have added to evidence that measuring and monitoring tumor DNA that naturally circulates in the blood of melanoma patients can not only reliably help reveal the early stages of cancer growth and spread but also uncover new treatment options that tumor genetic analysis alone may not. “For some patients in our study, ctDNA (circulating tumor DNA) levels measured in a relatively simple
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

Enzyme Discovery Points Researchers Toward Starving Lung Cancer as a Potential Treatment

 UT Southwestern researchers have found that an enzyme on the surface of some lung cancer cells helps feed the cancer, making it a tempting treatment target. The enzyme, transmembrane serine protease 11B (TMPRSS11B) is described in a report published today in the journal Cell Reports. In addition to being found in squamous cell lung cancer and prostate cancer, the enzyme also has been identified in squamous cell head, neck, and cervical cancers,
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

A study suggests that epigenetic treatments could trigger the development of aggressive tumours

Cancer develops as a result of the accumulation of mutations in our cells. These mutations are not distributed evenly in our chromosomes, so some regions hold more than others. A study headed by the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and published in the journal Nature Cell Biologyexamined whether the opening of chromatin (a complex formed by DNA bound to proteins) is the factor that determines the accumulation of more
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

Spread of Deadly Eye Cancer Halted in Cells and Animals

 By comparing genetic sequences in the eye tumors of children whose cancers spread with tumors that didn’t spread, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report new evidence that a domino effect in cells is responsible for the cancer spreading. Their experiments suggest that blocking part of the chain of events — which they successfully accomplished in zebra fish and human cells — stops the growth and spread of the eye tumor cells.
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

Combination chemotherapy and immunotherapy effective in Phase II leukemia study

A combination of the standard-of-care chemotherapy drug known as azacitidine, with nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, demonstrated an encouraging response rate and overall survival in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) according to findings from a Phase II study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Results from the trial, led by Naval Daver, M.D., associate professor of Leukemia, were published in the Nov. 8 online issue of Cancer Discovery. The study followed 70 patients
cancer Cancer Discovery

Dana-Farber Scientists Find New Drug Targets in Aggressive Cancers

 Scientists have discovered a previously unknown molecular vulnerability in two rare, aggressive, and hard-to-treat types of cancer, and say it may be possible to attack this weakness with targeted drugs. Reporting in Nature Cell Biology, researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute show that these two cancers – synovial sarcoma and malignant rhabdoid tumors – are dependent on a newly characterized “molecular machine” called ncBAF, which plays unique roles in regulating gene activity. The
Biotechnology

New Penn Medicine Center Brings Immunotherapy Research to Brain Tumor Treatment

Today, Penn Medicine is announcing the newest Translational Center of Excellence (TCE) in the Abramson Cancer Center, focused on Glioblastoma Multiforme, the most common and lethal form of brain cancer. The team will investigate new immune therapies for glioblastoma and, in particular, design and test new CAR T cell therapies. This involves engineering patients’ T cells (the cells that act on behalf of the immune system) to attack tumor cells.
Biotechnology

Researchers Ground-Breaking Discovery Finds New Link Between Autoimmune Diseases and a Gut Bacterium

Queen’s University researchers have, for the first time, found a specific microbe in the gut that pumps out protein molecules that mimic a human protein, causing the human defence system to turn on its own cells by mistake. The culprit in this case is called Bacteroides fragilis, a bacterium that normally lives in the human gut. The Queen’s team has shown that this bacterium produces a human-like protein that could
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

New radiotherapy treatment for brain cancer offers superior preservation of cognitive function, Mayo researchers say

 When it comes to radiation therapy to treat brain cancer, hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy in conjunction with the drug memantine better preserved patients’ cognitive function and demonstrated similar cancer control outcomes, compared to traditional whole-brain radiotherapy with memantine. These findings were presented on Tuesday, Oct. 23, by Mayo Clinic researchers at the 2018 annual meetingof the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) in San Antonio. “The hippocampus is a part of the brain associated with the
Breast Cancer cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

Researchers Identify a New Way to Determine Whether Metastatic Cancer Cells in Breast Cancer Patients are Dormant or Soon to Turn Deadly

For the first time ever, Mount Sinai researchers have identified a protein as a marker that can indicate whether a cancer patient will develop a reoccurrence of lethal, metastatic cancer, according to a clinical study published in Breast Cancer Research in October. The researchers found that when cells from a breast cancer patient’s original tumor metastasized into the patient’s bone marrow with none, or only a small amount, of the protein NR2F1,
Breast Cancer cancer Cancer Discovery

New Study Shows Promise for Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

 A new study by University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center researchers suggests that targeting a protein known as collagen XIII could be key for suppressing breast cancer metastasis. Breast cancers begin in the epithelial cells, which are the cells that line organs and tissues in the body. Generally, most epithelial cells will die after detaching from their substrata, known as the extracellular matrix – this type of programmed cell death is called
Biotechnology

Detecting Epigenetic Signature May Help People Stay Ahead of IBD

With an estimated 1.6 million people in the U.S. dealing with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), physicians can have a hard time telling which newly diagnosed patients have a high risk of severe inflammation or what therapies will be most effective. Now researchers report in the journal JCI Insights finding an epigenetic signature in patient cells that appears to predict inflammation risk in a serious type of IBD called Crohn’s disease. Epigenetics is
Biotechnology

Researchers find adult stem cell characteristics in aggressive cancers from different tissues

UCLA researchers have discovered genetic similarities between the adult stem cells responsible for maintaining and repairing epithelial tissues — which line all of the organs and cavities inside the body — and the cells that drive aggressive epithelial cancers. Their findings could bring about a better understanding of how aggressive, treatment-resistant cancers develop and progress, and could eventually lead to new drugs for a range of advanced epithelial cancers such as
Biotechnology

CRISPR Screen Identifies Gene That Helps Cells Resist West Nile, Zika Viruses

UT Southwestern researchers today report the first use of CRISPR genome-wide screening to identify a gene that helps cells resist flavivirus infection. That nasty class of pathogens includes West Nile virus, dengue fever, Zika virus, and yellow fever. In a study published in Nature Microbiology, the team led by Dr. John Schoggins, Assistant Professor of Microbiology, used the cutting-edge CRISPR technology to identify the IFI6 gene as a potent antiviral gene targeting flaviviruses. The
Biotechnology Cell Therapy Infectious Diseases rare diseases

Cancer Drug and Antidepressants Provide Clues for Treating Fatal Brain-Eating Amoeba Infections

The amoeba Naegleria fowleri is commonly found in warm swimming pools, lakes and rivers. On rare occasions, the amoeba can infect a healthy person and cause severe primary amebic meningoencephalitis, a “brain-eating” disease that is almost always fatal. Other than trial-and-error with general antifungal medications, there are no treatments for the infection. Researchers at Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of California San Diego have now identified
cancer

Researchers Identify a Potential Strategy in Fight Against Brain Cancer

Scientists with the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute say a gene involved in the body’s sleep cycle is a potential target for therapies to help patients with a deadly form of brain cancer known as glioblastoma. This discovery, to be published in the journal Scientific Reports on Tuesday, Sept. 11, points to a subtype of a particular gene that apparently is enabling the survival of cancer cells, although it is more commonly
cancer Cancer Discovery

Queen’s Researchers Discover Ground-Breaking Process Which Destroys Bowel Cancer Cells

Researchers at Queen’s University Belfast have discovered a ground-breaking therapeutic process that can target and kill bowel cancer cells, which may improve survival rates for bowel cancer patients globally. The research, which has been published in the prestigious journal of Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, is deemed the first of its kind with the discovery of a novel treatment strategy for bowel cancer patients who originally present with an extremely poor survival outcome.  The
cancer Cancer Discovery

New Test Uncovers Metabolic Vulnerabilities in Kidney Cancer

 In order to halt the growth of cancer cells, you have to know what feeds them. Researchers at the nationally recognized Kidney Cancer Program at UT Southwestern’s Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center have developed a novel approach using glucose that may open up new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Kidney cancer is one of the 10 most prevalent malignancies in the world and its frequency is increasing. According to UT
Breast Cancer cancer Cancer Discovery Clinical Trials

Researchers to Test Novel Drug Combination Against Toughest Breast Cancers

Phase I clinical trial will combine standard chemotherapy with cirmtuzumab, a drug that has shown promise against a variety of cancer types Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have launched a phase Ib clinical trial to assess the safety and tolerability of cirmtuzumab, in combination with standard chemotherapy, to treat metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer that cannot be surgically removed. Cirmtuzumab is a novel monoclonal antibody
cancer Cancer Discovery

New Drug Could Prevent Debilitating Side Effect of Cancer Treatment

About 50,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed annually with head, neck, nasal and oral cancers. Most are treated with radiation, and of those, 70-80 percent develop a painful and debilitating side effect called severe oral mucositis (SOM). While some drugs are available to treat SOM once it develops, none can prevent it. But today, researchers are reporting on a new drug, called GC4419, that appears to do just that.