cancer Cancer Discovery

Loss of Tight Junction Protein Promotes Development of Precancerous Cells

Tight junctions are multi-protein complexes that serve as barriers in epithelial tissues such as the skin or lining of the gut. Loss of a specific tight junction barrier protein, claudin 18, occurs in the majority of gastric cancer patients and is correlated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Understanding how claudin 18 loss occurs and what pathways it regulates may provide new strategies to inhibit neoplastic progression
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Early Clinical Trial Data Show Gene Therapy Reversing Sickle Cell Anemia

After over a decade of preclinical research and development, a new gene therapy treatment for Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) is reversing disease symptoms in two adults and showing early potential for transportability to resource-challenged parts of the world where SCA is most common.  Preliminary data from a pilot Phase 1-2 clinical trial testing the gene-addition therapy were presented Dec. 3 at the American Society of Hematology’s (ASH) annual meeting in San
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

Johns Hopkins Researchers Advance Role of Circulating Tumor DNA to Detect Early Melanoma Growth, Uncover Treatment Options

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have added to evidence that measuring and monitoring tumor DNA that naturally circulates in the blood of melanoma patients can not only reliably help reveal the early stages of cancer growth and spread but also uncover new treatment options that tumor genetic analysis alone may not. “For some patients in our study, ctDNA (circulating tumor DNA) levels measured in a relatively simple
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

Enzyme Discovery Points Researchers Toward Starving Lung Cancer as a Potential Treatment

 UT Southwestern researchers have found that an enzyme on the surface of some lung cancer cells helps feed the cancer, making it a tempting treatment target. The enzyme, transmembrane serine protease 11B (TMPRSS11B) is described in a report published today in the journal Cell Reports. In addition to being found in squamous cell lung cancer and prostate cancer, the enzyme also has been identified in squamous cell head, neck, and cervical cancers,
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

A study suggests that epigenetic treatments could trigger the development of aggressive tumours

Cancer develops as a result of the accumulation of mutations in our cells. These mutations are not distributed evenly in our chromosomes, so some regions hold more than others. A study headed by the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and published in the journal Nature Cell Biologyexamined whether the opening of chromatin (a complex formed by DNA bound to proteins) is the factor that determines the accumulation of more
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

Researchers stop ‘sneaky’ cancer cells in their tracks

A new study by University of Minnesota biomedical engineers shows how they stopped cancer cells from moving and spreading, even when the cells changed their movements. The discovery could have a major impact on millions of people undergoing therapies to prevent the spread of cancer within the body. The research is published today in Nature Communications, a leading research journal. Researchers have known for years that tumors have patterns that are like
Biotechnology cancer Cancer Discovery Cell Therapy drug development

Anti-Malaria Drugs Have Shown Promise in Treating Cancer, and Now Researchers Know Why

Anti-malaria drugs known as chloroquines have been repurposed to treat cancer for decades, but until now no one knew exactly what the chloroquines were targeting when they attack a tumor. Now, researchers from the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania say they have identified that target – an enzyme called PPT1 – opening up a new pathway for potential cancer treatments. The team also used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

Investigational Drug Shows Promising Results in Phase II Study of Aggressive, Often Fatal Blood Disorder with No Approved Therapies

A Phase I/II study, led by investigators at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, reports an investigational drug called tagraxofusp has demonstrated high response rates in patients with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN), a rare but highly aggressive – and often fatal bone marrow and blood disorder – for which there are no existing approved therapies. Findings from the study are being presented Dec. 3 at the 60th American Society of
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening Immunotherapies

Immunotherapy combination and chemotherapy show encouraging results in Phase II acute myeloid leukemia study

 A triple therapy combining two immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) with the standard-of-care chemotherapy, a hypomethylating agent called azacitidine, has shown promising results for treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), according to findings from a Phase II study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Findings from the study, led by Naval Daver, M.D., associate professor of Leukemia, are being presented at the 60th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting & Exposition in San Diego. The
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

Spread of Deadly Eye Cancer Halted in Cells and Animals

 By comparing genetic sequences in the eye tumors of children whose cancers spread with tumors that didn’t spread, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report new evidence that a domino effect in cells is responsible for the cancer spreading. Their experiments suggest that blocking part of the chain of events — which they successfully accomplished in zebra fish and human cells — stops the growth and spread of the eye tumor cells.
cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening

Combination chemotherapy and immunotherapy effective in Phase II leukemia study

A combination of the standard-of-care chemotherapy drug known as azacitidine, with nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, demonstrated an encouraging response rate and overall survival in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) according to findings from a Phase II study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Results from the trial, led by Naval Daver, M.D., associate professor of Leukemia, were published in the Nov. 8 online issue of Cancer Discovery. The study followed 70 patients
cancer Cancer Discovery

Dana-Farber Scientists Find New Drug Targets in Aggressive Cancers

 Scientists have discovered a previously unknown molecular vulnerability in two rare, aggressive, and hard-to-treat types of cancer, and say it may be possible to attack this weakness with targeted drugs. Reporting in Nature Cell Biology, researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute show that these two cancers – synovial sarcoma and malignant rhabdoid tumors – are dependent on a newly characterized “molecular machine” called ncBAF, which plays unique roles in regulating gene activity. The
cancer Cancer Discovery

Low-Fat Diet Increases Cancer Survival Rate in Mice, Study Finds

Something as simple as a change in diet can potentially help to increase the cancer survival rate of obese children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common childhood cancer, according to a new study by UCLA scientists. The research team, led by Dr. Steven Mittelman, chief of pediatric endocrinology at UCLA Mattel Children’s Hospital and member of the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, administered the chemotherapy drug vincristine to obese and non-obese mice
Biotechnology cancer Cell Therapy Immunotherapies rare diseases

Study Uncovers Key Parts of Mechanism for Activating T Cells to Fight Cancer and Other Diseases

In just a few years, CAR T-cell and other adoptive T-cell therapies have emerged as among the most promising forms of cancer immunotherapy. But even as these agents prove themselves against several forms of leukemia and lymphoma – and, potentially, certain solid tumors – basic questions remain about how they work. In a study published online today by the journal Immunity, scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Vanderbilt
Biotechnology

New Penn Medicine Center Brings Immunotherapy Research to Brain Tumor Treatment

Today, Penn Medicine is announcing the newest Translational Center of Excellence (TCE) in the Abramson Cancer Center, focused on Glioblastoma Multiforme, the most common and lethal form of brain cancer. The team will investigate new immune therapies for glioblastoma and, in particular, design and test new CAR T cell therapies. This involves engineering patients’ T cells (the cells that act on behalf of the immune system) to attack tumor cells.
cancer Cancer Discovery

Discovery of Pathway Leading to Growth of Colon Cancer Stem Cells Could Lead to New Possibilities in Colorectal Cancer Treatment

In a discovery that may have significant impact on the future of colon cancer treatment and research, scientists at the Helen F. Graham Cancer & Research Institute’s Center for Translational Cancer Research at Christiana Care Health System have defined a key signaling pathway that regulates colon cancer growth. Wilmington, Delaware, Oct. 11, 2018 – In a discovery that may have significant impact on the future of colon cancer treatment and research, scientists at the Helen F. Graham Cancer & Research
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New radiotherapy treatment for brain cancer offers superior preservation of cognitive function, Mayo researchers say

 When it comes to radiation therapy to treat brain cancer, hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy in conjunction with the drug memantine better preserved patients’ cognitive function and demonstrated similar cancer control outcomes, compared to traditional whole-brain radiotherapy with memantine. These findings were presented on Tuesday, Oct. 23, by Mayo Clinic researchers at the 2018 annual meetingof the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) in San Antonio. “The hippocampus is a part of the brain associated with the
Biotechnology cancer Clinical Trials

Researchers Use New AI Techniques in Clinical Trials for Personalized Cancer Treatment

Researchers are finding new ways to use artificial intelligence and nanotechnology to enhance treatments, from routine dental techniques to attacking cancerous tissue. At the AVS 65th International Symposium and Exhibition, being held Oct. 21-26, 2018, in Long Beach, California, Dean Ho will present the results of two clinical trials that show how AI-enabled personalized medical treatment for a prostate cancer patient and nanotechnology improved recovery for patients after a root
cancer Cancer Discovery

Compound Derived From Chinese Tree Bark Shows Promise as Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer

 A new derivative of a compound found in the bark of a rare Chinese tree has powerful anticancer properties and a low toxicity profile, according to researchers at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center. Results of their study of the effects of the compound F118 in pancreatic cancer were published in the Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research. Pancreatic cancer is one of the most difficult cancers to treat. Even with
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Researchers Identify a New Way to Determine Whether Metastatic Cancer Cells in Breast Cancer Patients are Dormant or Soon to Turn Deadly

For the first time ever, Mount Sinai researchers have identified a protein as a marker that can indicate whether a cancer patient will develop a reoccurrence of lethal, metastatic cancer, according to a clinical study published in Breast Cancer Research in October. The researchers found that when cells from a breast cancer patient’s original tumor metastasized into the patient’s bone marrow with none, or only a small amount, of the protein NR2F1,