Alzheimers and Dementia Neurology Neuroscience

Decreased deep sleep linked to early signs of Alzheimer’s disease

 Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis may have uncovered part of the explanation. They found that older people who have less slow-wave sleep – the deep sleep you need to consolidate memories and wake up feeling refreshed – have higher levels of the brain protein tau. Elevated tau is a sign of Alzheimer’s disease and has been linked to brain damage and cognitive decline. The
age-related decline Alzheimers and Dementia

New discoveries predict ability to forecast dementia from single molecule

 Scientists who recently identified the molecular start of Alzheimer’s disease have used that finding to determine that it should be possible to forecast which type of dementia will develop over time – a form of personalized medicine for neurodegenerative diseases. A new study from UT Southwestern shows that single toxic tau proteins that stick together and spread degeneration across the brains of dementia patients have different shapes. The folds of these
Alzheimers and Dementia

New Generation of Therapeutics Based on Understanding of Aging Biology Show Promise for Alzheimer’s Disease

 A scientific strategy that explores therapeutic targets based on the biology of aging is gaining ground as an effective approach to prevent and treat Alzheimer's disease, accordingdd to research published in the December 7, 2018 online issue of Neurology®. A comprehensive review of the clinical trial landscape, including current agents being studied for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (and other dementias), points to the need to develop and test
Alzheimers and Dementia

Johns Hopkins Team Identifies Promising Diagnostic Tool For Alzheimer’s Disease

 Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine have identified in live human brains new radioactive “tracer” molecules that bind to and “light up” tau tangles, a protein associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and other related dementias. Two studies will be published back-to-back in the December issue of Journal of Nuclear Medicine—one as featured article of the month—describing testing of three candidate molecules in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, as
age-related decline Alzheimers and Dementia

Scientists Propose a New Lead for Alzheimer’s Research

A University of Adelaide-led team of scientists has suggested a potential link between iron in our cells and the rare gene mutations that cause Alzheimer’s disease, which could provide new avenues for future research. In a paper published in the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience, the team proposes a new theory for how rare gene mutations cause Alzheimer’s disease. A theory that, if proven, could assist in finding a way to prevent the
age-related decline

How summer and diet damage your DNA, and what you can do

  Today, your body will accumulate quadrillions of new injuries in your DNA. The constant onslaught of many forms of damage, some of which permanently mutates your genes, could initiate cancer and prove fatal. Yet all is not doomed: The lives we lead determine how well our cells can handle this daily molecular erosion. Certain cells are particularly at risk. Your skin, for instance, is constantly being bombarded by high-energy
Neurodegenerative diseases

‘Skinny fat’ in older adults may predict dementia, Alzheimer’s risk

A new study has found that "skinny fat" - the combination of low muscle mass and strength in the context of high fat mass - may be an important predictor of cognitive performance in older adults. While sarcopenia, the loss of muscle tissue that is part of the natural aging process, as well as obesity both negatively impact overall health and cognitive function, their coexistence poses an even higher threat,
Ophthalmology

Team from the University of Delaware has found the Protein that Triggers Degradation in the Eye

If you want to take clear photographs, you don't use sandpaper to clear a smudge from your camera's lens. Similarly, if you want to see clearly, the lens of your eye has to be free of obstruction. For that reason a curious thing happens during the development of eye lenses. Instead of closely guarding their nucleus and the DNA it contains - which normal cells do - most lens cells
age-related decline Alzheimers and Dementia

A New Therapeutic Avenue for Parkinson’s disease

Systemic clearing of senescent astrocytes prevents Parkinson's neuropathology and associated symptoms in a mouse model of sporadic disease, the type implicated in 95% of human cases. Publishing in Cell Reports, researchers in the Andersen lab at the Buck Institute provide a new potential therapeutic avenue for the incurable, progressive neurological disorder that affects up to one million Americans, robbing them of the ability to control movement. Senescent cells, which stop dividing
Diabetes

A step closer to a cure for adult-onset diabetes

In healthy people, exosomes - tiny structures secreted by cells to allow intercellular communication - prevent clumping of the protein that leads to type 2 diabetes. Exosomes in patients with the disease don't have the same ability. This discovery by a research collaboration between Chalmers University of Technology and Astrazeneca takes us a step closer to a cure for type 2 diabetes. Proteins are the body's workhorses, carrying out all
Cardiology

Blood pressure medication does not completely restore vascular function

Treatments for high blood pressure do not totally reverse its damaging effects on the vascular rhythms that help circulation of the blood say researchers. The World Health Organisation says hypertension affects about 40% of those aged over 25 and is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. An interdisciplinary group of scientists from Lancaster University found that conventional medication aimed at reducing high blood pressure restored
Alzheimers and Dementia

Mayo Clinic Researchers Uncover New Agents That Eliminate Cells Associated with Age-Related Diseases

Mayo Clinic researchers have uncovered three new agents to add to the emerging repertoire of drugs that aim to delay the onset of aging by targeting senescent cells – cells that contribute to frailty and other age-related conditions. A recent study of human cell cultures shows that the drugs, fisetin and two BCL-XL inhibitors – A1331852 and A1155463 – cleared senescent cells in vitro. Findings appear online in Aging. “Senescent
Biomarkers

New Avenue for Anti-Depressant Therapy Discovered

Researchers have made a ground-breaking discovery revealing new molecular information on how the brain regulates depression and anxiety. In so doing, they identified a new molecule that alleviates anxiety and depressive behaviour in rodents. The research, led by Eleanor Coffey, Research Director at Åbo Akademi University in Finland is a collaborative effort between scientists in Finland and the US. The researchers found that a protein called JNK when active, represses
Biomarkers

Biomarkers May Help Better Predict Who Will Have a Stroke

People with high levels of four biomarkers in the blood may be more likely to develop a stroke than people with low levels of the biomarkers, according to a study published in the August 24, 2016, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. “Identifying people who are at risk for stroke can help us determine who would benefit most from existing or new therapies
Cell Therapy

Why do aged muscles heal slowly?

As we age, the function and regenerative abilities of skeletal muscles deteriorate, which means it is difficult for the elderly to recover from injury or surgery. New work from Carnegie's Michelle Rozo, Liangji Li, and Chen-Ming Fan demonstrates that a protein called b1-integrin is crucial for muscle regeneration. Their findings, published by Nature Medicine, provide a promising target for therapeutic intervention to combat muscle aging or disease. Muscle stem cells