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New Drug Combination Shows Promise in Treating Ovarian Cancer

Researchers at The University of Kansas Cancer Center have discovered a therapy combination that may be helpful in the treatment of certain types of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, accounting for more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. According to the American Cancer Society, about 22,240 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer each year. In a preclinical study led by Dineo
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New Drug Combo Improves Survival of Women with Rare Uterine Cancer

Adding the monoclonal antibody drug trastuzumab—already used to treat certain breast cancers—to the chemotherapy regimen of women with a rare form of uterine cancer lengthens the amount of time their tumors are kept from growing, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers conducting a small phase II trial of the regimen, testing its safety and value. The results of the trial, published online ahead of print on March 27 in the
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IU Research Suggests Failed Osteoarthritis Drug Could Get New Life as Opioid-Addiction Treatment

A new study from Indiana University suggests that a drug proven safe for use in people may prevent opioid tolerance and physical dependence when used in combination with opioid-based pain medications. Researchers in the Linda and Jack Gill Center for Biomolecular Science at IU Bloomington have discovered that a compound previously tested to treat osteoarthritis pain appears to block neuropathic pain and decrease signs of opioid dependence. The work is reported in the
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2-Drug Combination May Boost Immunotherapy Responses in Lung Cancer Patients

Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers and colleagues have identified a novel drug combination therapy that could prime nonsmall cell lung cancers to respond better to immunotherapy. These so-called epigenetic therapy drugs, used together, achieved robust anti-tumor responses in human cancer cell lines and mice. During the study, published Nov. 30, 2017, in the journal Cell, a team of researchers led by graduate student Michael Topper; research associate Michelle Vaz,
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Deadly Lung Cancers Are Driven by Multiple Genetic Changes

Blood-Based Cancer Tests Reveal Complex Genomic Landscape of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers A new UC San Francisco–led study challenges the dogma in oncology that most cancers are caused by one dominant “driver” mutation that can be treated in isolation with a single targeted drug. Instead, the new research finds one of the world’s most deadly forms of lung cancer is driven by changes in multiple different genes, which appear to
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Targeting a microRNA shows potential to enhance effectiveness of diabetes drugs

Over the past 15 years, University of Alabama at Birmingham endocrinologist Anath Shalev, M.D., has unraveled a crucial biological pathway that malfunctions in diabetes. Her latest discovery in this beta-cell pathway, published in the journal Diabetes, shows the potential to enhance the effectiveness of existing diabetes drugs, as well as reduce some of the unwelcome side effects of those drugs. The need for improved treatment is great. Diabetes is a
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Moffitt Researchers Discover New Targets for Approved Cancer Drug

New study shows ALK inhibitor ceritinib may have the ability to be used for more than ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer Developing new drugs to treat cancer can be a painstaking process taking over a decade from start to Food and Drug Administration approval. Scientists are trying to develop innovative strategies to identify and test new drugs quicker and more efficiently. A team of researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center used
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Scientists Discover Common Obesity and Diabetes Drug Reduces Rise in Brain Pressure

Research led by the University of Birmingham, published today in Science Translational Medicine, has discovered that a drug commonly used to treat patients with either obesity or Type II diabetes could be used as a novel new way to lower brain pressure. Raised brain pressure is common in emergency situations such as traumatic brain injury, hydrocephalus and stroke, and is also the cardinal feature of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). IHH
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Combination of Traditional Chemotherapy, New Drug Kills Rare Cancer Cells in Mice

An experimental drug combined with the traditional chemotherapy drug cisplatin, when used in mice, destroyed a rare form of salivary gland tumor and prevented a recurrence within 300 days, a University of Michigan study found. Called adenoid cystic carcinoma, or ACC, this rare cancer affects 3,000-4,000 people annually, and typically arises in the salivary glands. It's usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, is very resistant to therapy, and there's no
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New inhibitor drug shows promise in relapsed leukemia

A new drug shows promise in its ability to target one of the most common and sinister mutations of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), according to researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Penn's Abramson Cancer Center. The Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene mutation is a known predictor of AML relapse and is associated with short survival. In a first-in-human study, researchers treated relapsed
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A patent study on the great new hope emerging from marine derived anticancer drugs

Microtubule dynamics govern crucial cellular functions and this is why microtubules are one of the most attractive anticancer drug targets. Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) have the ability to treat a wide range of cancers. However, drug induced cytotoxicity and adverse side effects have hindered their development. Another major setback is multiple drug resistance in tumor cells. These limitations have prompted the need to develop novel MTAs from alternative sources, with
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Inhibitor drug improves overall survival in older radioiodine resistant thyroid cancer

The drug lenvatinib can significantly improve overall survival rates in a group of thyroid cancer patients whose disease is resistant to standard radioiodine treatment, according to new research from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. The study, published today in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, is the first to show lenvatinib has a definitive impact on overall survival (OS). Researchers found OS improves in patients older
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Diabetes drug prevents stiffening of heart muscle in obese mouse model

Overconsumption of a Western diet high in fats and refined sugars has contributed to a global increase in obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Obese and diabetic premenopausal women are more at risk of developing heart disease -- even more than men of similar age and with similar health issues. A study by researchers at the University of Missouri School of Medicine found that the diabetes medication linagliptin can protect against
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Clinical trial shows experimental drug’s ability to knock down pancreatic cancer’s defense

By adding an experimental drug to a standard chemotherapy regimen, a subset of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer had a significantly longer period before the cancer progressed as compared with those who received the standard treatment, according to a Phase 2 clinical trial led by an investigator at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. The randomized, controlled trial found that when the experimental therapy was given to participants whose tumors had
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Antidepressant May Enhance Drug Delivery to the Brain

NIH rat study suggests amitriptyline temporarily inhibits the blood-brain barrier, allowing drugs to enter the brain. New research from the National Institutes of Health found that pairing the antidepressant amitriptyline with drugs designed to treat central nervous system diseases, enhances drug delivery to the brain by inhibiting the blood-brain barrier in rats. The blood-brain barrier serves as a natural, protective boundary, preventing most drugs from entering the brain. The research,
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New Method for Tapping Vast Plant Pharmacopeia to Make More Effective Drugs

Cocaine, nicotine, capsaicin. These are just three familiar examples of the hundreds of thousands of small molecules (also called specialized or secondary metabolites) that plants use as chemical ammunition to protect themselves from predation. Unfortunately, identifying the networks of genes that plants use to make these biologically active compounds, which are the source of many of the drugs that people use and abuse daily, has vexed scientists for years, hindering
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‘Neuron-Reading’ Nanowires Could Accelerate Development of Drugs to Treat Neurological Diseases

A team led by engineers at the University of California San Diego has developed nanowires that can record the electrical activity of neurons in fine detail. The new nanowire technology could one day serve as a platform to screen drugs for neurological diseases and could enable researchers to better understand how single cells communicate in large neuronal networks. “We’re developing tools that will allow us to dig deeper into the
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New Arsenal Against MRSA: New Study Reports Cannabinoids Effective Against Antibiotic-Resistant MRSA

Researchers have found that cannabinoid-based therapies have unique anti-bacterial properties that fight MSRA and other infectious bacteria. In vitro studies demonstrated that bactericidal synergy was achieved against multiple species of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) utilizing a proprietary cannabinoid-based therapeutic platform. MRSA species tested included community acquired- (CA-MRSA), healthcare-acquired- (HA-MRSA), and mupirocin-resistant (MR-MRSA) strains of MRSA. Researchers also found that using unique strategic cannabinoid-based cocktails, fractional-inhibitory concentration (FIC) levels demonstrating synergy between
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Zika Virus Protein Mapped to Speed Search for Cure

A recently-published study shows how Indiana University scientists are speeding the path to new treatments for the Zika virus, an infectious disease linked to birth defects in infants in South and Central America and the United States. Cheng Kao, a professor in the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences' Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, has mapped a key protein that causes the virus to reproduce and spread. "Mapping
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Rogue Breast Tumor Proteins Point to Potential Drug Therapies

For patients with difficult-to-treat cancers, doctors increasingly rely on genomic testing of tumors to identify errors in the DNA that indicate a tumor can be targeted by existing therapies. But this approach overlooks another potential marker — rogue proteins — that may be driving cancer cells and also could be targeted with existing treatments. If DNA can be described as the body’s genetic blueprint, proteins can be thought of as