cancer Cancer Discovery

UK Study Shows New Potential Marker for Obesity

A new study led by University of Kentucky researchers and published in Nature shows a potential new biological marker for the development of obesity and a possible target for obesity prevention and treatment. Neurotensin (NT), a peptide produced mainly in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, is released with fat ingestion and facilitates fatty acid absorption in the intestine. Previous research has shown that NT can also stimulate the
cancer Cancer Discovery

Stopping Cancer in Its Tracks

Researchers from the University of Chicago have shown that inhibiting autophagy, a self-devouring process used by cells to degrade large intra-cellular cargo, effectively blocks tumor cell migration and breast cancer metastasis in tumor models. In a study, published May 12, 2016, in the journal Cell Reports, they demonstrate that the process is essential for tumor metastasis and describe the mechanisms that connect autophagy to cell migration. “Using genetic and chemical
cancer Cancer Discovery

Cell Death – Paradoxically – Promotes Tumor Growth in Most Aggressive Form of Pancreatic Cancer

The most aggressive form of pancreatic cancer – often described as one of the hardest malignancies to diagnose and treat -- thrives in the presence of neighboring tumor cells undergoing a particular form of “orchestrated cell death.” This is according to a major study recently published in the journal Nature. The study results revolve around carefully regulated cell dell death mechanisms that, by killing defective cells or those infected by
cancer Cancer Discovery Cell Therapy

St. Jude Researchers Reveal How Two Types of Immune Cells Can Arise From One

The fates of immune cells can be decided at the initial division of a cell. Researchers at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital have discovered that the production of daughter cells with different roles in the immune system is driven by the lopsided distribution of the signaling protein c-Myc. Nudging c-Myc in one direction or the other could make vaccines more effective or advance immunotherapies for cancer treatment. The research appears
Biotechnology cancer Cancer Discovery

First Computer Program Developed to Detect DNA Mutations in Single Cancer Cells

Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have announced a new method for detecting DNA mutations in a single cancer cell versus current technology that analyzes millions of cells which they believe could have important applications for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The results are published in the April 18 online issue of Nature Methods. Existing technology, known as next-generation sequencing (NGS), measures genomes derived from millions of
Biotechnology cancer Cancer Discovery

New technology for detecting malignant melanoma skin cancer

Billions are spent on cancer research, some new treatments are available, but why aren’t we making more progress toward a cure? Because cancer is molecular disease – it’s something going wrong with the “molecular machinery” in the cells of our body that normally produce the millions of molecules that keep us alive and healthy. But in cancer cells, this machinery goes awry, creating a growing cell population that keeps multiplying,
cancer Cancer Discovery

Monitoring Sugar Metabolism in Liver May Be a Key to Cancer Diagnosis

Scientists may have discovered a significant new diagnostic marker for liver cancer, according to a paper published in the April 18 online issue of Nature Cell Biology. A study led by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center found that a gene known as KHK (ketohexokinase or fructokinase) is expressed differently in normal liver tissues versus liver tumors. The findings reveal that liver cancer cells had a much reduced
Biotechnology cancer Cancer Discovery

Precision Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

Precision medicine’s public face is that of disease — and better treatments for that disease through targeted therapies. But precision medicine has an unsung partner that could affect the lives of many more people: Precision prevention — a reflection of the growing realization that preventing cancer and other diseases may not be one-size-fits-all. “Precision medicine has been kind of a buzzword recently, but often when people think about precision medicine,
cancer Cancer Discovery

People with Hepatitis C Are Two to Five Times More Likely to Develop Certain Head and Neck Cancers

Long associated with liver cancer and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, a study from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reveals for the first time that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with certain head and neck cancers. The findings, published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, could have significant implications for both the screening of those with the virus and the treatment of those with head and
Biotechnology cancer Cancer Discovery

Moffitt Cancer Center Researchers Discover Liver Metastases have Different Radiation Sensitivities Based on Primary Tumor Histology

Radiation is a commonly used therapeutic option to treat liver metastases, with the majority of tumors maintained under control after one year. However, some patients do not respond as well to radiation treatment, and the factors that predict patient outcomes are unclear. Moffitt Cancer Center researchers report that liver metastases have different sensitivities to radiation therapy based on the location of the primary tumor. Previously, Moffitt researchers developed a radiosensitivity
Biotechnology cancer Cancer Discovery Genomes

Spotting Dna Repair Genes Gone Awry

Researchers led by Ludwig Cancer Research scientist Richard Kolodner have developed a new technique for sussing out the genes responsible for helping repair DNA damage that, if left unchecked, can lead to certain cancers. Genome instability suppressing (GIS) genes play an important role in correcting DNA damage involving the improper copying or reshuffling of large sections of chromosomes. Called gross chromosomal rearrangements, or GCRs, these structural errors can disrupt gene
Biotechnology cancer Cancer Discovery

University of Pennsylvania to join new collaboration to fight cancer with immunotherapies

The University of Pennsylvania has joined an unprecedented cancer research effort, the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, which unites six of the nation's top medical schools and cancer centers around a shared aim of accelerating breakthrough immunotherapy research that will turn more cancers into a curable disease. The venture is backed by a $250 million gift from the Parker Foundation, making it the largest single contribution ever made to the
Biomarkers cancer Cancer Discovery

New Study Implicates Unusual Class of Circular RNAs in Cancer

Cancer cells are notorious for their genomes gone haywire, often yielding fusion proteins — mash-ups of two disparate genes that, once united, assume new and harmful capabilities. Exactly how such genome scrambling impacts RNA, particularly the vast and mysterious world of non-coding RNA, has been largely unexplored. Now, a team led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) offers some early answers by studying an intriguing class of
Cancer Discovery

New Mouse Model for Acute Myeloid Leukemia Opens Door to Research, Possible Treatments

A novel mouse model of a highly lethal form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) offers a new tool for scientists working to better understand this disease and research new therapeutic targets. Scientists from Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center developed the model and have already used it to gain important new insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying the disease and to identify promising drug targets. They report their results in the