Biotechnology Breast Cancer cancer Cancer Discovery Cancer screening Clinical Trials genes

New Study Finds Nanoparticles Show Promise in Therapy for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Approximately 10-20 percent of diagnosed breast cancers are found to be triple-negative, meaning the breast cancer cells test negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as HER2 receptors, genes that can play a role in the development of breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer can be more aggressive and difficult to treat as the cancer cells do not respond to hormonal therapies or therapies that target HER2 receptors. A new
Biotechnology

A Trojan Horse Delivery of Possible Treatment for a Rare, Potentially Deadly, Blood-Clotting Disorder

In proof-of-concept experiments, University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers have highlighted a potential therapy for a rare but potentially deadly blood-clotting disorder, TTP. The researchers deliver this therapeutic enzyme via the cellular equivalent of a Trojan Horse, using tiny blood cell platelets as their protective delivery vehicle, with a key enzyme hidden inside. TTP, or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, appears as blood clots in small arterioles throughout the body, particularly in the brain,
Biotechnology

Detecting Epigenetic Signature May Help People Stay Ahead of IBD

With an estimated 1.6 million people in the U.S. dealing with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), physicians can have a hard time telling which newly diagnosed patients have a high risk of severe inflammation or what therapies will be most effective. Now researchers report in the journal JCI Insights finding an epigenetic signature in patient cells that appears to predict inflammation risk in a serious type of IBD called Crohn’s disease. Epigenetics is
Biotechnology

Researchers find adult stem cell characteristics in aggressive cancers from different tissues

UCLA researchers have discovered genetic similarities between the adult stem cells responsible for maintaining and repairing epithelial tissues — which line all of the organs and cavities inside the body — and the cells that drive aggressive epithelial cancers. Their findings could bring about a better understanding of how aggressive, treatment-resistant cancers develop and progress, and could eventually lead to new drugs for a range of advanced epithelial cancers such as
Biotechnology

CRISPR Screen Identifies Gene That Helps Cells Resist West Nile, Zika Viruses

UT Southwestern researchers today report the first use of CRISPR genome-wide screening to identify a gene that helps cells resist flavivirus infection. That nasty class of pathogens includes West Nile virus, dengue fever, Zika virus, and yellow fever. In a study published in Nature Microbiology, the team led by Dr. John Schoggins, Assistant Professor of Microbiology, used the cutting-edge CRISPR technology to identify the IFI6 gene as a potent antiviral gene targeting flaviviruses. The
Biotechnology Cell Therapy Infectious Diseases rare diseases

Cancer Drug and Antidepressants Provide Clues for Treating Fatal Brain-Eating Amoeba Infections

The amoeba Naegleria fowleri is commonly found in warm swimming pools, lakes and rivers. On rare occasions, the amoeba can infect a healthy person and cause severe primary amebic meningoencephalitis, a “brain-eating” disease that is almost always fatal. Other than trial-and-error with general antifungal medications, there are no treatments for the infection. Researchers at Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of California San Diego have now identified
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Human Neural Stem Cells Drive Spine Regeneration in Rats

Stem cells maintained in culture renewed long regions of spinal cord in rat transplant model NIBIB-funded researchers generated stable lines of spinal cord neural stem cells in a laboratory dish. Once transplanted into a rat model of spinal cord injury, the cells enabled robust regeneration of functional neurons along the length of the spine. The research team  from the University of California, San Diego, used human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)
Biotechnology

Robot Helps with Early Screening for Alzheimer’s Patients

September is World Alzheimer’s Awareness Month and a new project in collaboration with UP Health System Portage investigates how technology can assist doctors in earlier diagnosis of the neurodegenerative disease. Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports as many as five million Americans had the disease in 2013. They estimate that by 2050, nearly 14 million will have it. Age
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Proof of Concept Study Aims for Rapid Genotyping to Guide Epilepsy Treatment

An easy and inexpensive test for the HLA-B*15:02 allele could one day allow clinicians to quickly identify which epilepsy patients are at risk of carbamazepine hypersensitivity, according to study results presented by Gita V. Soraya at ILAE's 2018 Asian & Oceanian Epilepsy Congress in Bali. “This study has provided the proof of principle evidence for the development of a handheld device that can be used at the clinic or bedside
Biotechnology rare diseases

How Malaria Parasites Take Over Human Red Blood Cells, According to Newly Published Research

Researchers at Iowa State University have gained new insight into how the parasitic protozoa that cause malaria hijack human red blood cells, a development with the potential to lead to new ways to treat the disease. The parasites that cause malaria symptoms in humans enter the red blood cells of a host and quickly rearrange things to their liking by inserting their own proteins into the red blood cell. But
Biotechnology

Natural sugar defends against metabolic syndrome, in mice

Trehalose blocks glucose from liver New research, in mice, indicates that a natural sugar called trehalose blocks glucose from the liver and activates a gene that boosts insulin sensitivity, reducing the chance of developing diabetes. Activating the gene also triggers an increase in calories burned, reduces fat accumulation and weight gain, and lessens measures of fats and cholesterol in the blood. The findings, from researchers at Washington University School of
Biotechnology

Researchers Find Potential New Gene Therapy for Blinding Disease

Scientists funded by NIH preserve vision in dogs with a disease similar to retinitis pigmentosa in humans. Scientists funded by the National Eye Institute (NEI) report a novel gene therapy that halts vision loss in a canine model of a blinding condition called autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). The strategy could one day be used to slow or prevent vision loss in people with the disease. NEI is part of
Biotechnology

First Mouse Model to Mimic Lung Disease Could Speed Discovery of More Effective Treatments

Penn Study Details Model of Pulmonary Fibrosis, Which Kills More Than 40,000 Each Year The biggest hurdle to finding effective therapies for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) – a life-threatening condition in which the lungs become scarred and breathing is increasingly difficult – has been the inability to fully model the disease in animals, limiting the ability to observe and understand the disease. Now, a team of researchers from Penn Medicine has developed
Biotechnology

FDA approves first-of-its kind targeted RNA-based therapy to treat a rare disease

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Onpattro (patisiran) infusion for the treatment of peripheral nerve disease (polyneuropathy) caused by hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis (hATTR) in adult patients. This is the first FDA-approved treatment for patients with polyneuropathy caused by hATTR, a rare, debilitating and often fatal genetic disease characterized by the buildup of abnormal amyloid protein in peripheral nerves, the heart and other organs. It is also the first
Biotechnology cancer Neurodegenerative diseases

FDA approves treatment for two rare types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Poteligeo (mogamulizumab-kpkc) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory mycosis fungoides (MF) or Sézary syndrome (SS) after at least one prior systemic therapy. This approval provides a new treatment option for patients with MF and is the first FDA approval of a drug specifically for SS. “Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are rare, hard-to-treat types
Biotechnology

Researchers Uncover Potential New Drug Targets in the Fight Against HIV

Johns Hopkins scientists report they have identified two potential new drug targets for the treatment of HIV. The finding is from results of a small, preliminary study of 19 people infected with both HIV—the virus that causes AIDS—and the hepatitis C virus. The study revealed that two genes—CMPK2 and BCLG, are selectively activated in the presence of type 1 interferon, a drug once used as the first line of treatment
Biotechnology

NUS and Harvard scientists develop novel drug that could potentially treat liver cancer more effectively

 A research team led by scientists from the Cancer Institute of Singapore (CSI Singapore) at the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed a novel peptide drug called FFW that could potentially stop the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or primary liver cancer. This landmark discovery opens door for more effective treatment of liver cancer with less side effects. The international team comprises researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital at
Biotechnology

Implants Made by Computer-Aided Design Provide Good Results in Patients with Rare Chest Muscle Deformity

For patients with Poland syndrome – a rare cImplants Made by Computer-Aided Design Provide Good Results in Patients with Rare Chest Muscle Deformityongenital condition affecting the chest muscle – computer-aided design (CAD) techniques can be used to create custom-made silicone implants for reconstructive surgery of the chest, reports a paper in the August issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).   The new technique provides good cosmetic outcomes and improves quality of
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Diabetes Drugs Act as Powerful Curb for Immune Cells in Controlling Disease-causing Inflammation

Controlling Immune System Fuel Puts the Brakes on Macrophage Damage When tissue is damaged, one of the body’s first inflammatory immune-system responders are macrophages, cells which are commonly thought of as “construction workers” that clear away damaged tissue debris and initiate repair. However, prolonged inflammation promotes the progression of many diseases, including obesity. Now, a common class of drugs used to treat diabetes has been found to exert a powerful
Biotechnology

CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing scissors are less accurate than we thought, but there are fixes

by Gaetan Burgio CRISPR gene editing technology is revolutionizing medicine and biology. This technique allows scientists to edit DNA with more precision and greater ease than previous gene editing technology. But a new study has called into question the precision of the technique. The hope for gene editing is that it will be able to cure and correct diseases. To date, many successes have been reported, including curing deafness in